La Iglesia de San Andrés de Mazarrón

La Iglesia de San Andrés de Mazarrón

Coordenadas GPS: 37º35’54’28’’N; 1º19’01’89’’O

Historia: La Iglesia data de entre 1523 a 1549 (Siglo XVI). Sabemos que en 1762 se procedió a ampliar la primitiva iglesia.

Galería 1

Los dos núcleos de población en los que se dividía Mazarrón en el siglo XVI estaban gobernados por el Marqués de los Vélez y el Duque de Escalona (de la familia de los Villena). La construcción de lugares de culto solía recaer en las familias nobles que regentaban las villas. Si el templo de San Antonio recayó en los Vélez, este de San Andrés sería promovido por el duque de Escalona.

Planta  

La construcción está realizada con mampostería y piedra tallada, que recuerda al típico modelo de casa cántabras y construcciones realizadas durante  del siglo XV y XVI. Está cubierta de teja a dos aguas o a una sola vertiente y pocos elementos ornamentales.

planta san Andres
La primitiva iglesia debía poseer una planta rectangular con la techumbre de madera -un alfarje mudéjar de par y nudillo-, planta a la que se irían añadiendo capillas. La arquitectura que hoy día podemos admirar resulta de una remodelación llevada a cabo en 1762, cuando se añadió el crucero, elevando la altura original del edificio tanto en esta zona como en la del presbiterio. Se añadía, al mismo tiempo, una Capilla Mayor, elemento fundamental en el edificio. Con este crucero la iglesia pasaba a tener una estética barroca inequívoca.

El templo está dividido en dos zonas; la más antigua de forma rectangular  y que se corresponde con la ermita inicial, como rasgo más destacado, la cantería con sillares regulares que se concentran en las dos portadas principales y destaca la techumbre construida con una armadura de par y nudillo y la otra se corresponde con la ampliación del siglo XVIII.

Fachadas

En la fachada situada a los pies de la nave tiene una puerta adintelada con marcos de sillería y dos escudos (es la entrada actual). La portada existente a los pies de la iglesia no es la principal y original, pese a tener labrados los escudos de armas de las familias dominantes en la antigua villa. Su estructura ha sido muy alterada con el paso del tiempo y ya apenas conserva los elementos primitivos.

Nada más entrar se encuentran las puertas de madera de la Iglesia, algunas con la Cruz de San Andrés. Aquí se puede ver la placa que recuerda la reapertura de San Andrés en 2007.

La fachada lateral, que está compuesta de un arco con sillares rectangulares, podría ser que los maestros encargados de su construcción fueran vizcaínos o montañeses, debido a la venida de población procedente del norte que llega a Mazarrón para trabajar en las minas.

La portada lateral se completa con dos escudos nobiliarios rodeados por laureles y frutos, enmarcados por un alfiz.

Esta ornamentación y la labor de sillería del arco es propia de las casas nobles del norte de España durante el siglo XVI. Al igual que la Corona, las Casas Marquesales de los Vélez y de los Villena (Duques de Escalona) poseían propiedades en Mazarrón, estos gozaban el derecho de poder colocar en las puertas de sus casas el blasón de su abolengo, entre otras prerrogativas, las de recibir el tratamiento de don, exclusión del servicio militar, del embargo de bienes, del encarcelamiento por deudas… Estos escudos corresponden a la Casa Marquesal de Villena y están datados en la segunda mitad del s.XVI.

El Retablo Mayor y el Altar Galeria 2
Es un Retablo pintado. Los colores utilizados para pintar este retablo son fuertes y a su vez muy planos, domina el amarillo sobre el rojo.

Se representa una arquitectura fingida de dos cuerpos.


El primero, con un nicho central (ocupada por la imagen de San Andrés)  y a cada lado una columna de orden compuesto con fuste de color gris oscuro que simulan ser de mármol soportando el frontón dominado por las formas geométricas. A cada lado del nicho y a su vez al lado de las columnas se encuentran dos santos:

  • a la derecha San Fernando representado con los atributos que normalmente le acompañan; la corona aludiendo a su condición de rey y gobernante, y la esfera que indica el dominio gobernante sobre el mundo (poder y gobierno al servicio de la cristiandad).
  • Y a la izquierda se encuentra representado a San Clemente con el báculo de triple travesaño alusivo a su dignidad papal en la mano derecha, y en la mano izquierda su ancla; característico atributo de este Santo.

En el remate de este retablo fingido se encuentra el segundo cuerpo, donde se contempla una pintura de la Virgen del Apocalipsis pisando a la serpiente y rodeada de ángeles. En lo alto, la Cruz de San Andrés.

Se desconoce el autor de la obra, aunque aparecen las iniciales G.M. representadas en la parte más alta del retablo no se sabe exactamente a quien se refiere.

Artesonado mudéjar
Galeria 3
En el interior del edificio se puede apreciar la techumbre de madera (artesonado de par y nudillo), que sigue la mecánica y disposiciones de las armaduras mudéjares que en tantos puntos de la península se desarrollaron hasta su paulatina desaparición durante el siglo XVII.


Se trata, pues, de una construcción que conserva una de las pocas armaduras mudéjares que se conservan en la región. En este caso se trata de una techumbre de madera conocida como de par y nudillo, muy parecida a la que se puede admirar en el templo de la Santa de Totana.
La armadura está dispuesta en dos vertientes y con una zona central (almízate) decorado con lazos que forman estrellas de ocho puntas de dos colores. De un lado a otro de este armazón se disponen maderos llamados tirantes también decorados.

Escultura religiosa Galeria 4

  • En el nicho central destaca la imagen del patrón: San Andrés, que porta la cruz en X. Esta escultura es moderna y se adquirió en la nueva apertura de la iglesia tras tantos años de cierre.
  • Dos Ángeles custodios rodean el sagrario.
  • En el altar destacan un crucificado y una María Inmaculada.
  • El sagrario, el altar y el ambón se instalaron al abrirse de nuevo el culto el templo, destacando el símbolo “X” que identifica al santo principal de la Iglesia. También se puede encontrar el signo “X” en las puertas de madera de la entrada y en varias ventanas del templo.
  • La imagen de Jesús Resucitado, en el hueco frontal derecho.
  • El grupo escultórico de “la Piedad” en el hueco frontal izquierdo. Procesiona en la Semana Santa de Mazarrón.
  • Al pie del altar, en el lado derecho, está la pila bautismal, construida en mármol blanco.
  • El Corazón de Jesús, en el lateral izquierdo.
  • Santa Teresita del Niño de Jesús o de Lisieux, en el lateral derecho.
  • Santa Lucía ocupa una capilla de la derecha.
    pilar
  • Junto a la entrada, en el lado derecho, la imagen de la Virgen del Pilar.  Esa una virgen con niño sobre columna realizada en escayola policromada, atribuida a la escuela de Olot, del Siglo XX. Se encuentra vestida con túnica roja y manto azul verdoso recogido con su mano derecha sobre una de sus caderas, en los bordes de este manto se aprecian unas cenefas de color oro. En la otra mano porta al niño de piel rosada que aparece envuelto en un paño y sujetando con su mano izquierda, a la altura de su pecho, la paloma símbolo del Espíritu Santo y apoyando su otra mano suavemente sobre el pecho de su madre. Sobre la cabeza la Virgen lleva una corona y una aureola decorada con estrellas y hojas. Ambas figuras dirigen sus miradas hacia el infinito, por lo tanto no existe una relación visual directa entre ellos. En el rostro de la Virgen se aprecia ensimismamiento y serenidad mientras que el niño mira hacia lo alto con gesto amable. La columna es el símbolo que refleja el conducto que une el cielo y la tierra, manifestación de la potencia de Dios en el hombre.
  • La imagen del Padre Pío está en una capilla de la izquierda, junto a la imagen del Cristo de la Misericordia.

Pinturas

  • El martirio de San Andrés, copia de la obra de Murillo.
  • La pintura del Cristo de la Misericordia.
  • Algunas cristaleras tienen motivos abstractos, geométricos.

san andres

  • La cúpula de la nave central tiene 4 grandes rosetones que representan a los cuatro evangelistas: San Mateo, San Lucas, San Marcos y San Juan.
  • También puede verse un “Vía Crucis“, con cada una de sus estaciones.

 

La Iglesia de San Andrés Hoy (Galeria 5)

Actualmente el templo es la sede oficial de la “Parroquia de San Andrés y San Antonio de Padua” y está abierta al culto. Cuenta con tres Sacerdotes: Julio (párroco), José Carlos (vicario parroquial) y Francisco Javier (vicario parroquial).

Recientemente se ha instalado un nuevo campanario.

Lejos están los días en que esta iglesia se mantuvo cerrada (más de 30 años, para el que esto escribe) y apenan quedan heridas visibles de la devastadora “Guerra Civil” en sus paredes.

Campanario

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